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2 Interesting Facts about Period 5 Elements

2 Interesting Facts about Period 5 Elements

Riddhi Bhattacharya

Welcome to part 4 in the Chemical Element Facts Series! Discover interesting facts about period 5 chemical elements in the periodic table and embark on a chemical journey!

37. Facts – Rubidium

Rubidium facts
  • Rubidium is used as a “getter” in vacuum tubes. Due to rubidium’s readiness to bond with several gases, it is used to remove any trace gases after the vacuum tubes are manufactured.
  • Due to the easy ionization of rubidium, it has been considered for use in ion engines for space-craft.

38. Facts – Strontium

Strontium facts
  • The first large-scale application of strontium was in the beet sugar industry just prior to World War I. More than 100,000 tons of strontium hydroxide were used each year in the sugar crystallization process.
  • Strontium titanate has an extremely high refractive index and an optical dispersion greater than a diamond’s. It has been used as a gemstone, though it is very soft.

39. Facts – Yttrium

Yttrium facts
  • In the solar system, yttrium was created from stellar nucleosynthesis. Elemental yttrium is never found in nature.
  • That yttrium-containing material was the first ever to achieve superconductivity at a temperature higher than the boiling point of nitrogen.

40. Facts – Zirconium

Zirconium facts
  • Zircon is sometimes confused with cubic zirconia, a synthetic, inexpensive diamond simulant. However, according to Minerals.net, the two are entirely separate substances, and have no connection with each other except that they both contain the element zirconium in their chemical structure. 
  • The use of lithium zirconate may be useful in absorbing excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

41. Facts – Niobium

Niobium facts
  • According to Lenntech, while some compounds of niobium dust can cause eye and skin irritation, there are no known cases of any serious effects of working with niobium. There are also no known environmental effects of niobium.
  • Niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and rhenium are known as the five refractory metals, according to Chemicool. These metals all have very high resistance to heat and wear.

42. Facts – Molybdenum

Molybdenum facts
  • Molybdenum is the 54th most common element in the Earth’s crust.
  • “Big Bertha,” the German 43-ton gun used in World War II, contained molybdenum, rather than iron, as an essential component of its steel, because of its much higher melting point.

43. Facts – Technetium

Technetium facts
  • Dmitri Mendeleev predicted an element forty-three in his periodic table nearly seventy years before technetium was discovered. He thought it would have properties very close to manganese, and even named it ekamanganese.
  • Technetium has the second-largest magnetic penetration depth after niobium.

44. Facts – Ruthenium

Ruthenium facts
  • Ruthenium compounds are similar to those formed by the element cadmium. Like cadmium, ruthenium is toxic to humans. It is believed to be a carcinogen. Ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) is considered particularly dangerous.
  • Ruthenium displays a wide range of oxidation states (7 or 8), although it is most commonly found in the II, III, and IV states.

45. Facts – Rhodium

Rhodium facts
  • Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost.
  • All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. 

46. Facts – Palladium

Palladium
  • The U.S. imports about 90 percent of the platinum-group elements it uses, including palladium, according to the USGS.
  • Palladium is relatively biologically inactive, but can cause allergic reactions in some people. If you have a nickel allergy, you’re at higher risk of irritation from palladium, too, according to a 2002 paper in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.The U.S. imports about 90 percent of the platinum-group elements it uses, including palladium, according to the USGS.

47. Facts – Silver

Silver facts
  • The most stable of the radioisotopes has a half-life of over forty-one days and the least stable having a half-life of less than three minutes.
  • Coins made of silver are believed by Christians to be the bribe price paid to Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus. In folklore, silver is associated with the ability to stop paranormal creatures such as vampires or werewolves.

48. Facts – Cadmium

Cadmium facts
  • According to the International Cadmium Association, cadmium was used as a pigment in red, orange and yellow paints due to the brilliance of those colors in naturally occurring cadmium-sulfide.
  • Until World War 1, Germany was the only supplier of cadmium, according to the International Cadmium Association.

49. Facts – Indium

Indium facts
  • Indium metal gives off a high-pitched “scream,” when bent. Similar to the “tin cry,” this scream sounds more like a crackling sound. 
  • Specimens of uncombined indium metal has been found in a region of Russia, according to Lenntech.

50. Facts – Tin

Tin facts
  • Sn? Shouldn’t tin’s atomic symbol be Tn instead? Actually, Sn is short for the Latin word for tin, stannum
  • When tin is bent at room temperature, it makes a high-pitched creaking sound known as the “tin cry,” caused by the deformation of tin crystals. 

51. Facts – Antimony

Antimony facts
  • Antimony is occasionally found in its pure form, but is most commonly found in the mineral stibnite.
  • Antimony is believed to be found in the Earth’s crust at about 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million. It is found in over 100 different minerals.

52. Facts – Tellurium

Tellerium facts
  • Panels made with tellurium helped produce some of the maximum efficiencies in solar power generation.
  • Tellurium is typically produced from the sludge byproduct of copper refining.

53. Facts – Iodine

Iodine facts
  • he first iodized table salt was sold in Michigan in 1924. Before this, most people living along the coasts still got plenty of iodine just by being near the ocean and the coastal soil. People living further inland, however, were often iodine-deficient, resulting in a higher incidence of goiter. Once the connection between iodine deficiency and goiter was established, public health officials began looking for ways to alleviate the problem — eventually leading to iodized salt. 
  • Iodine is a good test for starch as it turns a deep blue color when it comes in contact with it.

54. Facts – Xenon

Xenon facts
  • Like helium, you can fill balloons with xenon, but it is very expensive and the balloon becomes very heavy because the gas is so dense. An average balloon can hold around 40 lbs. (18.1 kilograms) of xenon, according to an experiment by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
  • Xenon atoms added to liquid helium are used to observe quantum tornadoes.

Other Articles in this Series:

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

See Also

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

Of the three precious metals (rhodium, platinum and palladium) currently used in vehicle catalytic converters, rhodium has by far the highest activity for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust. It also has very high activity for the oxidation of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) and very good resistance to the poisons present in the exhaust stream, according to Eastern Catalytic. Its primary drawback, however, is its high cost. All rhodium compounds are easily reduced or decomposed through heating to create powdered (or sponge) metal. Fac

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