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2 Interesting Facts about Lanthanoids

2 Interesting Facts about Lanthanoids

Welcome to part 7 in the Chemical Element Facts Series! Discover interesting facts about Lanthanoids in the periodic table and embark on a chemical journey!

57. Facts – Lanthanum

Lanthanum facts
  • Lanthanum is a metal so soft it can be cut with a butter knife. It is highly malleable and ductile. Although the freshly cut metal is bright silver, it rapidly oxidizes or tarnishes in air. 
  • Lanthanum is used in nickel-metal hydride batteries, which attery! Lanthanum compounds may be added to pool produces to lower levels of phosphates, reducing algae growth.

58. Facts – Cerium

Cerium facts
  • Its oxide, ceria, had been previously discovered, but limited technology kept the element from being isolated.
  • Cerium is concentrated in the soil at about two to one hundred fifty parts per million, and at about one and a half parts per trillion in seawater.

59. Facts – Praseodymium

Praseodymium facts
  • Its oxide, Pradeodymium (IV) Oxide is such a strong oxidizing agent that it is able to oxidize water itself.
  • Praseodymium gets it name from the Greek words prasios, which means “green”, and didymos, which means “twin”. The “twin” part refers to the element being the twin of neodymium in didymium, while “green” refers to the color of the salt isolated by von Welsbach. Praseodymium forms Pr(III) cations, which are yellowish green in water and glass.

60. Facts – Neodymium

neodymium facts
  • Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines
  • Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster.

61. Facts – Promethium

promethium facts
  • All of the isotopes of promethium are radioactive. It is the only radioactive rare earth metal and it is one of only two radioactive elements followed by stable elements on the periodic table. The other element like this is technetium.
  • Promethium compounds have several practical applications, all more to deal with its radioactivity than its chemical properties. The earliest pacemakers used nuclear batteries that relied on promethium. It is used in missile and spacecraft power sources, as a beta source for thickness gauges, and to make luminous paints.

62. Facts – Samarium

samarium facts
  • Ingesting the right dose of samarium chloride will allow it to bind with alcohol and prevent you from getting intoxicated.
  • Samarium is a yellowish silver-colored metal. It is the hardest and the most brittle of the rare earth elements. It tarnishes in air and will ignite in air at about 150 °C.

63. Facts – Europium

europium facts
  • Laser material is one byproduct of europium-doped plastic. The cost of production has been greatly reduced through the development of special processes and ion-exchange techniques.
  • Europium can be found in the ores bastnasite and monazite. The element has also been identified in the sun and some stars.

64. Facts – Gadolinium

gadolinium facts
  • At room temperature, gadolinium crystallizes in the hexagonal, close-packed alpha form. Alpha gadolinium transforms into the beta form, which has a body-centered cubic structure, when heated to 2,255 F (1,235 C).
  • The metal has unusual superconductive properties. The resistance and workability of iron and chromium can be improved with as little as 1 percent gadolinium. Due to its low noise characteristics, gadolinium ethyl sulfate has been explored for duplicating the performance of amplifier

65. Facts – Terbium

terbium facts
  • The oxide is a dark maroon or chocolate color, and 21 isotopes with atomic masses ranging from 145 to 165 are recognized. The oxide form is chocolate or dark maroon.
  • While there are not many commercial uses for terbium, sodium terbium borate is used in solid-state devices. When combined with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), it can act as a crystal stabilizer of elevated-temperature fuel cells.

66. Facts – Dysprosium

dysprosium facts
  • While there is not currently a wide range of applications for dysprosium, properties such as its thermal neutron absorption cross-section and high melting point could result in metallurgical uses in nuclear control applications and for alloying with special stainless steels.
  • Like other rare-earth or lanthanide elements, dysprosium occurs in a variety of minerals, including gadolinite, euxenite, xenotime, fergusonite, polycrase and blomstrandine. Monaziate and bastnasite are the most significant sources of dysprosium and it can be prepared by reduction of the trifluoride with calcium.

67. Facts – Holmium

holmium facts
  • Holmium occurs in gadolinite, monazite, and in other rare earth minerals. It is commercially abstracted from monazite and occurs in that mineral at a rate of about 0.05 percent. Reduction of its anhydrous chloride or fluoride with calcium metal is the process to isolate the metal.
  • While it is stable in dry air at room temperature it rapidly oxidizes in moist air and at elevated temperatures. Like other rare earths, holmium seems to have a low acute toxic rating.

68. Facts – Erbium

erbium facts
  • Erbium occurs in a variety of minerals, including gadolinite, euxenite, xenotime, fergusonite, polycrase and blomstrandine.
  • rbium is finding uses in nuclear and metallurgical applications. When added to vanadium, erbium lowers the hardness and improves pliability of the metal. Erbium oxide adds a pink hue to glasses and porcelain enamel glazes.

69. Facts – Thulium

thulium facts
  • While it is the least abundant of all the lanthanides, or rare earth elements, new sources have been recently discovered, putting it on par with cadmium, silver and gold in terms of supply.
  • When bombarded in a nuclear reactor, thulium can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment.

70. Facts – Ytterbium

ytterbium facts
  • Ytterbium occurs along with other rare earths in a number of rare minerals. It is commercially recovered principally from monazite sand, which contains about 0.03 percent. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have simplified the separation of the rare earths from one another. Ytterby is the site of a quarry that yielded many unusual minerals containing rare earths and other elements.
  • Ytterbium has few uses. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable. One of ytterbium’s isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines.

71. Facts – Lutetium

lutetium facts
  • Lutetium is present in monazite to the extent of about 0.003 percent, which is a commercial source, and occurs in very small amounts in nearly all minerals containing yttrium.
  • The commercial uses for lutetium are very limited. Stable lutetium nuclides, which emit pure beta radiation after thermal neutron activation, can be used as catalysts in hydrogenation, cracking, alkylation and polymerization.

Other Articles in this Series:

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

See Also

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air. The element should be kept under oil or sealed tightly in plastic material. The metal has a bright and silvery luster. Neodymium colors glass several shades, ranging from pure violet through deep red and warm gray tones. This glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp absorption bands to calibrate spectral lines Neodymium is one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals and quickly oxidizes in air.

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